Food and Water
The larger food system consists of food production, processing, distribution, retailing, and cooking. However, most greenhouse gas emissions associated with the broader food system are in production: crop growing, feed production, and land use change.
Most greenhouse gas emissions in farming and livestock are not directly associated with energy. In the United States, the larger food production uses energy as follows.
With transportation a relatively minor component of the food-energy nexus, a movement toward local foods has limited potential to save on energy consumption. In some cases, localized production can increase energy consumption by requiring that food be grown in a climate that is not optimal . An exception is that air-shipped foods typically have higher lifecycle emissions than other options .
It is estimated that about a third of all food grown or raised is lost prior to consumption.
Overeating, or the consumption of food in excess of recommended intake, is also a form of food waste.
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