Food and Water
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Industry is the largest energy-consuming sector in the world economy. We compare major options for production of industrial heat--for which non-fossil fuel options are not yet readily available--and for major commodities such as iron and steel, chemicals and plastics, aluminum, paper and pulp, and cement. We review methods for capture, storage, and utilizing CO2 and energy efficiency potential in design of industrial systems. Recycling, and to a lesser extent material reduction, are readily available tools to reduce the impacts of major commodities.